Du kennst doch sicher das Autokennzeichen CH - das steht für Confoederatio helvetica, also schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft. Ich will nicht sagen, dass sich . Vom legendären Rütlischwur bis zur faktischen Unabh¨ngigkeit vom deutschen Reich und zur Niederlage von Marignano. Eidgenossenschaft steht für: Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft, offizieller deutscher Name der Schweiz · Eidgenossenschaft (Rechtsbegriff), die Verbindung.
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|Schweiz eidgenossen||Jahrhundert mit seiner Vorliebe für das mittels Experimenten oder wenigstens alten Urkunden Beweisbare holte den Bundesbrief aus seinem Dornröschenschlaf. Wenn sich Paare trennen. Von Peter Schneider Januar im Liestal erschütterte die Alte Eidgenossenschaft. Ein Traktat der Gegenseite warf den Eidgenossen folgendes irrtümliches Selbstverständnis vor: Ist mir bei der WM mal wieder gabriel belmont, dass der Begriff "Eidgenossen" im Zusammenhang mit der Schweiz genannt wird. Weil Herzog Friedrich IV. Erschütterung und Entlastung im Kino-Sessel.|
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|Schweiz eidgenossen||Um einen Bruderkampf zu vermeiden, schlossen diese über die Köpfe ihrer Auftraggeber hinweg ein Abkommen zum freien Abzug der Mailänder. Ganz southprk inexistent ist diese Debatte indes nicht: Jahrhundert stand Zürich als Vorort schalke vs bilbao Vorsitz bei der Tagsatzung zu. Und sie trieben das eben lang und heimlich und tagten zu dieser Zeit nirgends anders als im Rütli. Also casino symbol diese püntnus von den genanten drijen tapfern personen in dem land Uri im Rütlin von erst gemacht und geswort, davon die eidtgnosschafft entsprungen. Umgekehrt scheiterten die kommunistischen Diktaturen in Osteuropa im Meistgelesen Meistgehört Icc erfolge 1 Schluss machen, aber wie?|
The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy.
Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation ; it has not been in a state of war internationally since and did not join the United Nations until Nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world.
However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French, Italian and Romansh.
Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy ,  and Alpine symbolism.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF.
The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer , an obsolete term for the Swiss , which was in use during the 16th to 19th centuries.
The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of , used alongside the term for "Confederates", Eidgenossen literally: The Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced gradually after the formation of the federal state in , harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic , appearing on coins from , inscribed on the Federal Palace in and after used in the official seal.
Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii , a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century , forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries.
The oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about , years. One of the most important tribal groups in the Swiss region was the Helvetii.
Sometime around the start of the Common Era, the Romans maintained a large legionary camp called Vindonissa , now a ruin at the confluence of the Aare and Reuss rivers, near the town of Windisch , an outskirt of Brugg.
The first and second century AD was an age of prosperity for the population living on the Swiss plateau. Several towns, like Aventicum , Iulia Equestris and Augusta Raurica, reached a remarkable size, while hundreds of agricultural estates Villae rusticae were founded in the countryside.
Repeated raids by the Alamanni tribes provoked the ruin of the Roman towns and economy, forcing the population to find shelter near Roman fortresses, like the Castrum Rauracense near Augusta Raurica.
The Empire built another line of defence at the north border the so-called Donau-Iller-Rhine-Limes , but at the end of the fourth century the increased Germanic pressure forced the Romans to abandon the linear defence concept, and the Swiss plateau was finally open to the settlement of Germanic tribes.
In the Early Middle Ages , from the end of the 4th century, the western extent of modern-day Switzerland was part of the territory of the Kings of the Burgundians.
The Alemanni settled the Swiss plateau in the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps in the 8th century, forming Alemannia.
Modern-day Switzerland was therefore then divided between the kingdoms of Alemannia and Burgundy. Throughout the rest of the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries the Swiss regions continued under Frankish hegemony Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties.
But after its extension under Charlemagne , the Frankish Empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in With the extinction of its male line in the Kyburg dynasty fell in AD ; then the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I Holy Roman Emperor in laid claim to the Kyburg lands and annexed them extending their territory to the eastern Swiss plateau.
The Old Swiss Confederacy was an alliance among the valley communities of the central Alps. The Confederacy, governed by nobles and patricians of various cantons, facilitated management of common interests and ensured peace on the important mountain trade routes.
The expansion led to increased power and wealth for the confederation. The Old Swiss Confederacy had acquired a reputation of invincibility during these earlier wars, but expansion of the confederation suffered a setback in with the Swiss defeat in the Battle of Marignano.
This ended the so-called "heroic" epoch of Swiss history. In the background to this struggle, the conflict between Catholic and Protestant cantons persisted, erupting in further violence at the First War of Villmergen , in , and the Toggenburg War or Second War of Villmergen , in In , the revolutionary French government conquered Switzerland and imposed a new unified constitution.
The new regime , known as the Helvetic Republic, was highly unpopular. It had been imposed by a foreign invading army and destroyed centuries of tradition, making Switzerland nothing more than a French satellite state.
When war broke out between France and its rivals, Russian and Austrian forces invaded Switzerland. The Swiss refused to fight alongside the French in the name of the Helvetic Republic.
In Napoleon organised a meeting of the leading Swiss politicians from both sides in Paris. The result was the Act of Mediation which largely restored Swiss autonomy and introduced a Confederation of 19 cantons.
In the Congress of Vienna fully re-established Swiss independence and the European powers agreed to permanently recognise Swiss neutrality.
The restoration of power to the patriciate was only temporary. Yet however minor the Sonderbundskrieg appears compared with other European riots and wars in the 19th century, it nevertheless had a major impact on both the psychology and the society of the Swiss and of Switzerland.
The war convinced most Swiss of the need for unity and strength towards its European neighbours. Swiss people from all strata of society, whether Catholic or Protestant, from the liberal or conservative current, realised that the cantons would profit more if their economic and religious interests were merged.
Thus, while the rest of Europe saw revolutionary uprisings , the Swiss drew up a constitution which provided for a federal layout , much of it inspired by the American example.
This constitution provided for a central authority while leaving the cantons the right to self-government on local issues.
Giving credit to those who favoured the power of the cantons the Sonderbund Kantone , the national assembly was divided between an upper house the Council of States , two representatives per canton and a lower house the National Council , with representatives elected from across the country.
Referendums were made mandatory for any amendment of this constitution. A system of single weights and measures was introduced and in the Swiss franc became the Swiss single currency.
Article 11 of the constitution forbade sending troops to serve abroad, with the exception of serving the Holy See , though the Swiss were still obliged to serve Francis II of the Two Sicilies with Swiss Guards present at the Siege of Gaeta in , marking the end of foreign service.
An important clause of the constitution was that it could be re-written completely if this was deemed necessary, thus enabling it to evolve as a whole rather than being modified one amendment at a time.
This need soon proved itself when the rise in population and the Industrial Revolution that followed led to calls to modify the constitution accordingly.
An early draft was rejected by the population in but modifications led to its acceptance in It also established federal responsibility for defence, trade, and legal matters.
In , the constitution was revised with unusually strong elements of direct democracy , which remain unique even today. Switzerland was not invaded during either of the world wars.
In , Switzerland joined the League of Nations , which was based in Geneva , on condition that it was exempt from any military requirements.
The Swiss military strategy was changed from one of static defence at the borders to protect the economic heartland, to one of organised long-term attrition and withdrawal to strong, well-stockpiled positions high in the Alps known as the Reduit.
Switzerland was an important base for espionage by both sides in the conflict and often mediated communications between the Axis and Allied powers.
Economic cooperation and extension of credit to the Third Reich varied according to the perceived likelihood of invasion and the availability of other trading partners.
Concessions reached a peak after a crucial rail link through Vichy France was severed in , leaving Switzerland together with Liechtenstein entirely isolated from the wider world by Axis controlled territory.
Over the course of the war, Switzerland interned over , refugees  and the International Red Cross , based in Geneva, played an important part during the conflict.
Strict immigration and asylum policies as well as the financial relationships with Nazi Germany raised controversy, but not until the end of the 20th century.
During the war, the Swiss Air Force engaged aircraft of both sides, shooting down 11 intruding Luftwaffe planes in May and June , then forcing down other intruders after a change of policy following threats from Germany.
Over Allied bombers and their crews were interned during the war. Between and , Switzerland was bombed by the Allies causing fatalities and property damage.
Allied forces explained the bombings, which violated the 96th Article of War , resulted from navigation errors, equipment failure, weather conditions, and errors made by bomber pilots.
The Swiss expressed fear and concern that the bombings were intended to put pressure on Switzerland to end economic cooperation and neutrality with Nazi Germany.
During the Cold War , Swiss authorities considered the construction of a Swiss nuclear bomb. In , the Paul Scherrer Institute was founded in his name to explore the therapeutic uses of neutron scattering technologies.
Financial problems with the defence budget and ethical considerations prevented the substantial funds from being allocated, and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of was seen as a valid alternative.
All remaining plans for building nuclear weapons were dropped by Switzerland was the last Western republic to grant women the right to vote.
Some Swiss cantons approved this in , while at the federal level it was achieved in   and, after resistance, in the last canton Appenzell Innerrhoden one of only two remaining Landsgemeinde in After obtaining suffrage at the federal level, women quickly rose in political significance, with the first woman on the seven member Federal Council executive being Elisabeth Kopp , who served from to ,  and the first female president being Ruth Dreifuss in Switzerland joined the Council of Europe in On 18 April the Swiss population and the cantons voted in favour of a completely revised federal constitution.
In Switzerland became a full member of the United Nations, leaving the Vatican City as the last widely recognised state without full UN membership.
An application for membership in the European Union was sent in May , but not advanced since the EEA was rejected in December  when Switzerland was the only country to launch a referendum on the EEA.
There have since been several referendums on the EU issue; due to opposition from the citizens, the membership application has been withdrawn.
Nonetheless, Swiss law is gradually being adjusted to conform with that of the EU, and the government has signed a number of bilateral agreements with the European Union.
It contains three basic topographical areas: The majority of the Swiss population live in the Swiss Plateau. The largest lake is Lake Geneva, in western Switzerland shared with France.
Lake Constance is the second largest Swiss lake and, like the Lake Geneva, an intermediate step by the Rhine at the border to Austria and Germany.
Both are located within the Pennine Alps in the canton of Valais , on the border with Italy. In the southeast the long Engadin Valley, encompassing the St.
It has greater open and hilly landscapes, partly forested, partly open pastures, usually with grazing herds, or vegetables and fruit fields, but it is still hilly.
There are large lakes found here and the biggest Swiss cities are in this area of the country. Within Switzerland there are two small enclaves: There are some valley areas in the southern part of Switzerland where some cold-hardy palm trees are found.
Summers tend to be warm and humid at times with periodic rainfall so they are ideal for pastures and grazing. The less humid winters in the mountains may see long intervals of stable conditions for weeks, while the lower lands tend to suffer from inversion , during these periods, thus seeing no sun for weeks.
This works both ways across the alps but is more efficient if blowing from the south due to the steeper step for oncoming wind from the south.
Valleys running south to north trigger the best effect. The driest conditions persist in all inner alpine valleys that receive less rain because arriving clouds lose a lot of their content while crossing the mountains before reaching these areas.
The wettest conditions persist in the high Alps and in the Ticino canton which has much sun yet heavy bursts of rain from time to time.
Autumn is the driest season, winter receives less precipitation than summer, yet the weather patterns in Switzerland are not in a stable climate system and can be variable from year to year with no strict and predictable periods.
The mountainous regions themselves are also vulnerable, with a rich range of plants not found at other altitudes, and experience some pressure from visitors and grazing.
The climatic, geological and topographical conditions of the alpine region make for a very fragile ecosystem that is particularly sensitive to climate change.
The Federal Constitution adopted in is the legal foundation of the modern federal state. It outlines basic and political rights of individuals and citizen participation in public affairs, divides the powers between the Confederation and the cantons and defines federal jurisdiction and authority.
There are three main governing bodies on the federal level: The Swiss Parliament consists of two houses: Members of both houses serve for 4 years and only serve as members of parliament part-time so-called Milizsystem or citizen legislature.
Through referendums , citizens may challenge any law passed by parliament and through initiatives , introduce amendments to the federal constitution, thus making Switzerland a direct democracy.
The Federal Council constitutes the federal government, directs the federal administration and serves as collective Head of State. It is a collegial body of seven members, elected for a four-year mandate by the Federal Assembly which also exercises oversight over the Council.
The President of the Confederation is elected by the Assembly from among the seven members, traditionally in rotation and for a one-year term; the President chairs the government and assumes representative functions.
However, the president is a primus inter pares with no additional powers, and remains the head of a department within the administration.
The Swiss government has been a coalition of the four major political parties since , each party having a number of seats that roughly reflects its share of electorate and representation in the federal parliament.
Following the Federal Council elections , the seven seats in the Federal Council were distributed as follows:. The function of the Federal Supreme Court is to hear appeals against rulings of cantonal or federal courts.
The judges are elected by the Federal Assembly for six-year terms. Direct democracy and federalism are hallmarks of the Swiss political system.
The and Swiss Constitutions define a system of direct democracy sometimes called half-direct or representative direct democracy because it is aided by the more commonplace institutions of a representative democracy.
The instruments of this system at the federal level, known as popular rights German: Diritti popolari ,  include the right to submit a federal initiative and a referendum, both of which may overturn parliamentary decisions.
By calling a federal referendum, a group of citizens may challenge a law passed by parliament, if they gather 50, signatures against the law within days.
If so, a national vote is scheduled where voters decide by a simple majority whether to accept or reject the law. Any 8 cantons together can also call a constitutional referendum on a federal law.
Similarly, the federal constitutional initiative allows citizens to put a constitutional amendment to a national vote, if , voters sign the proposed amendment within 18 months.
Constitutional amendments, whether introduced by initiative or in parliament, must be accepted by a double majority of the national popular vote and the cantonal popular votes.
The Swiss Confederation consists of 26 cantons: The cantons are federated states , have a permanent constitutional status and, in comparison with the situation in other countries, a high degree of independence.
Under the Federal Constitution, all 26 cantons are equal in status, except that 6 referred to often as the half-cantons are represented by only one councillor instead of two in the Council of States and have only half a cantonal vote with respect to the required cantonal majority in referendums on constitutional amendments.
Each canton has its own constitution, and its own parliament, government, police and courts. The cantons comprise a total of 2, municipalities as of Traditionally, Switzerland avoids alliances that might entail military, political, or direct economic action and has been neutral since the end of its expansion in Its policy of neutrality was internationally recognised at the Congress of Vienna in Switzerland maintains diplomatic relations with almost all countries and historically has served as an intermediary between other states.
A large number of international institutions have their seats in Switzerland, in part because of its policy of neutrality. Even though Switzerland is one of the most recent countries to have joined the United Nations, the Palace of Nations in Geneva is the second biggest centre for the United Nations after New York, and Switzerland was a founding member and home to the League of Nations.
The Swiss Armed Forces , including the Land Forces and the Air Force , are composed mostly of conscripts, male citizens aged from 20 to 34 in special cases up to 50 years.
Being a landlocked country, Switzerland has no navy; however, on lakes bordering neighbouring countries, armed military patrol boats are used.
Swiss citizens are prohibited from serving in foreign armies, except for the Swiss Guards of the Vatican , or if they are dual citizens of a foreign country and reside there.
The structure of the Swiss militia system stipulates that the soldiers keep their Army issued equipment, including all personal weapons, at home.
Some organisations and political parties find this practice controversial. Men usually receive military conscription orders for training at the age of The reform "Army XXI" was adopted by popular vote in , it replaced the previous model "Army 95", reducing the effectives from , to about , Of those, , are active in periodic Army training and 80, are non-training reserves.
Overall, three general mobilisations have been declared to ensure the integrity and neutrality of Switzerland.
The first one was held on the occasion of the Franco-Prussian War of — The second was in response to the outbreak of the First World War in August The third mobilisation of the army took place in September in response to the German attack on Poland ; Henri Guisan was elected as the General-in-Chief.
Because of its neutrality policy, the Swiss army does not currently take part in armed conflicts in other countries, but is part of some peacekeeping missions around the world.
Since the armed force department has also maintained the Onyx intelligence gathering system to monitor satellite communications.
Following the end of the Cold War there have been a number of attempts to curb military activity or even abolish the armed forces altogether.
A notable referendum on the subject, launched by an anti-militarist group , was held on 26 November It was defeated with about two thirds of the voters against the proposal.
The large majority of firearms kept at home are issued by the Swiss army , but ammunition is no longer issued. From the Swabian War in onwards until Reformation, most conferences met in Zurich.
Afterwards the town hall at Baden, where the annual accounts of the common people had been held regularly since , became the most frequent, but not the sole place of assembly.
After Frauenfeld gradually dissolved Baden. From , the Catholic conferences were held mostly in Lucerne, the Protestant conferences from mostly in Aarau , the one for the legitimation of the French Ambassador in Solothurn.
At the same time the syndicate for the Ennetbirgischen Vogteien located in the present Ticino met from in Lugano and Locarno.
In , the federal constitution provided that details concerning the federal institutions, such as their locations, should be taken care of by the Federal Assembly BV Art.
Thus on 28 November , the Federal Assembly voted in majority to locate the seat of government in Berne. In , a law RS fixed the compensations owed by the city of Bern for the federal seat.
The new constitution, however, does not contain anything concerning any Federal City. In a tripartite committee has been asked by the Swiss Federal Council to prepare the "creation of a federal law on the status of Bern as a Federal City", and to evaluate the positive and negative aspects for the city and the canton of Bern if this status were awarded.
After a first report the work of this committee was suspended in by the Swiss Federal Council, and work on this subject has not resumed since.
Thus as of today, no city in Switzerland has the official status either of capital or of Federal City, nevertheless Berne is commonly referred to as "Federal City" German: Switzerland has a stable, prosperous and high-tech economy and enjoys great wealth, being ranked as the wealthiest country in the world per capita in multiple rankings.
In it was ranked as the wealthiest country in the world in per capita terms with "wealth" being defined to include both financial and non-financial assets , while the Credit Suisse Global Wealth Report showed that Switzerland was the country with the highest average wealth per adult in It is the twentieth largest exporter , despite its small size.
Switzerland has the highest European rating in the Index of Economic Freedom , while also providing large coverage through public services.
Switzerland is home to several large multinational corporations. Switzerland is ranked as having one of the most powerful economies in the world.
Manufacturing consists largely of the production of specialist chemicals , health and pharmaceutical goods, scientific and precision measuring instruments and musical instruments.
The unemployment rate increased from a low of 1. Switzerland has an overwhelmingly private sector economy and low tax rates by Western World standards; overall taxation is one of the smallest of developed countries.
Switzerland is a relatively easy place to do business, currently ranking 20th of countries in the Ease of Doing Business Index. The slow growth Switzerland experienced in the s and the early s has brought greater support for economic reforms and harmonisation with the European Union.
The Swiss Federal budget had a size of Education in Switzerland is very diverse because the constitution of Switzerland delegates the authority for the school system to the cantons.
Traditionally, the first foreign language in school was always one of the other national languages, although recently English was introduced first in a few cantons.
At the end of primary school or at the beginning of secondary school , pupils are separated according to their capacities in several often three sections.
The fastest learners are taught advanced classes to be prepared for further studies and the matura ,  while students who assimilate a little more slowly receive an education more adapted to their needs.
There are 12 universities in Switzerland , ten of which are maintained at cantonal level and usually offer a range of non-technical subjects.
The first university in Switzerland was founded in in Basel with a faculty of medicine and has a tradition of chemical and medical research in Switzerland.
The largest university in Switzerland is the University of Zurich with nearly 25, students. In addition, there are various Universities of Applied Sciences.
In business and management studies, the University of St. Many Nobel Prize laureates have been Swiss scientists.
They include the world-famous physicist Albert Einstein  in the field of physics, who developed his special relativity while working in Bern.
In total, Nobel Prize winners in all fields stand in relation to Switzerland  [note 11] and the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded nine times to organisations residing in Switzerland.
Another important research centre is the Paul Scherrer Institute. Notable inventions include lysergic acid diethylamide LSD , diazepam Valium , the scanning tunnelling microscope Nobel prize and Velcro.
Switzerland Space Agency, the Swiss Space Office , has been involved in various space technologies and programmes. In addition it was one of the 10 founders of the European Space Agency in and is the seventh largest contributor to the ESA budget.
In the private sector, several companies are implicated in the space industry such as Oerlikon Space  or Maxon Motors  who provide spacecraft structures.
Switzerland voted against membership in the European Economic Area in a referendum in December and has since maintained and developed its relationships with the European Union EU and European countries through bilateral agreements.
In March , the Swiss people refused in a popular vote to start accession negotiations with the EU. The application for membership of the EU was formally withdrawn in , having long been frozen.
The western French-speaking areas and the urban regions of the rest of the country tend to be more pro-EU, nonetheless with far from a significant share of the population.
These agreements were signed in and took effect in This first series of bilateral agreements included the free movement of persons.
A second series covering nine areas was signed in and has since been ratified, which includes the Schengen Treaty and the Dublin Convention besides others.
In , Switzerland approved 1 billion francs of supportive investment in the poorer Southern and Central European countries in support of cooperation and positive ties to the EU as a whole.
A further referendum will be needed to approve million francs to support Romania and Bulgaria and their recent admission. The Swiss have also been under EU and sometimes international pressure to reduce banking secrecy and to raise tax rates to parity with the EU.
Preparatory discussions are being opened in four new areas: The land border checkpoints will remain in place only for goods movements, but should not run controls on people, though people entering the country had their passports checked until 29 March if they originated from a Schengen nation.
On 9 February , Swiss voters narrowly approved by This initiative was mostly backed by rural In December , a compromise with the European Union was attained effectively canceling quotas on EU citizens but still allowing for favorable treatment of Swiss-based job applicants.
On 18 May , two anti-nuclear initiatives were turned down: Moratorium Plus , aimed at forbidding the building of new nuclear power plants It started its daily business for passenger transport on 11 December replacing the old, mountainous, scenic route over and through the St Gotthard Massif.
Switzerland has a publicly managed road network without road tolls that is financed by highway permits as well as vehicle and gasoline taxes.
Gallen-Altenrhein Airport and Sion Airport. Swiss International Air Lines is the flag carrier of Switzerland.
Switzerland has one of the best environmental records among nations in the developed world;  it was one of the countries to sign the Kyoto Protocol in and ratified it in Switzerland developed an efficient system to recycle most recycable materials.
Switzerland also has an economic system for garbage disposal, which is based mostly on recycling and energy-producing incinerators due to a strong political will to protect the environment.
In almost all Swiss municipalities, stickers or dedicated garbage bags need to be purchased that allow for identification of disposable garbage. In common with other developed countries, the Swiss population increased rapidly during the industrial era, quadrupling between and Growth has since stabilised, and like most of Europe, Switzerland faces an ageing population , albeit with consistent annual growth projected into , due mostly to immigration and a fertility rate close to replacement level.
As of [update] , resident foreigners made up Immigrants from Sri Lanka , most of them former Tamil refugees, were the largest group among people of Asian origin 6.
Additionally, the figures from show that A third of this population , held Swiss citizenship. Four fifths of persons with an immigration background were themselves immigrants first generation foreigners and native-born and naturalised Swiss citizens , whereas one fifth were born in Switzerland second generation foreigners and native-born and naturalised Swiss citizens.
In the s, domestic and international institutions expressed concern about what was perceived as an increase in xenophobia , particularly in some political campaigns.
Switzerland has four national languages: However, federal laws and other official acts do not need to be decreed in Romansh.
In , the languages most spoken at home among permanent residents aged 15 and older were Swiss German Other languages spoken at home included English 5.
The federal government is obliged to communicate in the official languages, and in the federal parliament simultaneous translation is provided from and into German, French and Italian.
Aside from the official forms of their respective languages, the four linguistic regions of Switzerland also have their local dialectal forms.
The role played by dialects in each linguistic region varies dramatically: The principal official languages German, French, and Italian have terms, not used outside of Switzerland, known as Helvetisms.
German Helvetisms are, roughly speaking, a large group of words typical of Swiss Standard German , which do not appear either in Standard German , nor in other German dialects.
The most frequent characteristics of Helvetisms are in vocabulary, phrases, and pronunciation, but certain Helvetisms denote themselves as special in syntax and orthography likewise.
Duden , the comprehensive German dictionary, contains about Helvetisms. Learning one of the other national languages at school is compulsory for all Swiss pupils, so many Swiss are supposed to be at least bilingual , especially those belonging to linguistic minority groups.
Swiss residents are universally required to buy health insurance from private insurance companies, which in turn are required to accept every applicant.
While the cost of the system is among the highest, it compares well with other European countries in terms of health outcomes; patients have been reported as being, in general, highly satisfied with it.
Between two thirds and three quarters of the population live in urban areas. Since urban development has claimed as much of the Swiss landscape as it did during the previous 2, years.
This urban sprawl does not only affect the plateau but also the Jura and the Alpine foothills  and there are growing concerns about land use.
Switzerland has a dense network of towns, where large, medium and small towns are complementary. These churches, and in some cantons also the Old Catholic Church and Jewish congregations, are financed by official taxation of adherents.
As of the census other Christian minority communities included Neo- Pietism 0. Non-Christian religions are Hinduism 0. The country was historically about evenly balanced between Catholic and Protestant, with a complex patchwork of majorities over most of the country.
Switzerland played an exceptional role during the Reformation as it became home to many reformers. Geneva converted to Protestantism in , just before John Calvin arrived there.
In , he founded the Republic of Geneva on his own ideals. Anabaptists Felix Manz and Conrad Grebel also operated there. One canton, Appenzell, was officially divided into Catholic and Protestant sections in The Swiss Constitution of , under the recent impression of the clashes of Catholic vs.
Protestant cantons that culminated in the Sonderbundskrieg , consciously defines a consociational state , allowing the peaceful co-existence of Catholics and Protestants.
A initiative calling for the complete separation of church and state was rejected by Swiss culture is characterised by diversity, which is reflected in a wide range of traditional customs.
Switzerland is home to many notable contributors to literature, art, architecture, music and sciences. The communal movement in medieval Europe often led to similar alliances or leagues, called conjurationes in the Latin of the official documents of the time.
The city alliances German: The best known of these city alliances was the Hanseatic League , but many others existed in the 13th and 14th century.
On the Swiss Eidgenossenschaft , however, the edict had no such effect as Charles IV, who was of the House of Luxembourg , regarded the Swiss as potential useful allies against his rivals, the Habsburgs.
Equivalent terms in German used for "oath fellowships" without specific connection to Switzerland are Eidgemeinschaft and Eidgesellschaft.
Eidgeselle in 16th-century German is used of sworn guild members, of friends privately sworn to one another, and of conjugal spouses.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Helvetia foedere juncta, confoederation.
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