Das Königreich Spanien teilt sich mit Portugal die Iberische Halbinsel. Es grenzt entlang des Gebirgszuges der Pyrenäen an Frankreich und den Kleinstaat. Ob Spanien Hilfe aus dem EU-Rettungsfonds braucht, hängt von der Sanierung der nationalen Sparkassen ab. Sept. September eroberten die Truppen der Bourbonen, dem Herrschergeschlecht, das auch heute noch in Spanien regiert, Barcelona und.
Im Jahr gab es hier Kraftfahrzeuge pro Einwohner; infolge der Finanzkrise sank diese Quote wieder leicht ab Zum Teil gibt es Verkehrsleitsysteme wie in Valencia.
In geschlossenen Ortschaften muss nachts immer mit Abblendlicht gefahren werden. Vorsicht beim Einfahren in Autobahnen: Hinzu kommt, dass es in Spanien normal ist, Verkehrsteilnehmer mit Fahrzeugen vorzulassen, die weniger flexibel sind, wie Lastkraftwagen.
Von dieser Wartespur kann letztendlich nach rechts in die Fahrspur eingeschert werden. Bezahlt man einen Strafzettel innerhalb von in der Regel 14 Tagen, hat dies einen prozentigen Nachlass zur Folge.
Ein wenn auch nur teilweises Abstellen auf dem Gehweg hat ein sofortiges Abschleppen zur Folge. Eine durchgezogene gelbe Linie am Fahrbahnrand weist auf ein Parkverbot hin.
Die lokale Polizei besitzt oftmals eigene Abschleppwagen. Seit Juli sind in Spanien Warnwesten gesetzlich vorgeschrieben.
In Deutschland waren es im selben Jahr 4,3 Tote. Insgesamt kamen damit 1. Das Land hat eine im weltweiten Vergleich hohe Motorisierungsrate.
Radwege waren lange Zeit nur in touristisch attraktiven Regionen bekannt. Auch der Individualfahrradverkehr neben den Fahrradverleihsystemen nimmt zu.
Die bestehenden Netze werden in der Regel gut angenommen und erweitert. Busfahren ist in Spanien vergleichsweise billig. Inzwischen dienen diese jedoch nur noch dem Transport von Trinkwasser.
Zum Zwecke der Wasser- und Energieversorgung wurden im Die einzige Ausnahme ist der Guadalquivir zwischen Sevilla und dem Atlantik.
Diese Zugtypen unterscheiden sich in ihrer Bauart und fahren auf festgelegten Strecken. Eine Klassifizierung nach der Zug-Geschwindigkeit und Haltepunktdichte wie im deutschen Sprachraum gibt es in Spanien nicht.
Die Industrie des Landes wurde sukzessive liberalisiert und modernisiert. Griechenland 5, Deutschland Das Wachstum der vergangenen Jahre wurde wesentlich durch einen Immobilienboom getragen, mit dem die durchschnittliche Verschuldung pro Person schon auf Prozent des Jahreseinkommens anstieg, das war dreimal mehr als vor einer Dekade.
Die Immobilienblase platzte im Verlauf der Finanzkrise ab In Spanien kostet eine Immobilie das 7,2-fache des durchschnittlichen Jahreseinkommens eines Haushalts.
Es folgten Jahre der Rezession und Stagnation. Das Bruttoinlandsprodukt Spaniens betrug ca. Wichtigste Wirtschaftszweige der spanischen Wirtschaft sind der Tourismus, das Bauwesen, die Kommunikations- und Informationstechnik, metallverarbeitende Industrie, Maschinenbau, Landwirtschaft und Petrochemie.
Die Kanarischen Inseln sind das wichtigste touristische Ziel in Spanien: Zweitwichtigstes Reiseziel ist Katalonien, es wurde von 24 Millionen Touristen besucht.
Danach folgt Andalusien mit 12,5 sowie Madrid mit 10,6 Millionen Touristen. In Spanien werden folgende Agrarprodukte produziert: Der Spanische Weinbau ist bedeutend.
Die Wohnungspreise sind regional unterschiedlich. Im Jahr wurden in Spanien In dieser Legislaturperiode hat die Regierungspartei sozialistische Partei eine Kehrtwende vollzogen.
In Spanien gibt es Gesetze, die den weiteren Ausbau der Kernenergie untersagen. Der Staatshaushalt umfasste Ausgaben von Mrd. Dollar dem standen Einnahmen von Mrd.
Ein typisch spanisches Spektakel ist der Stierkampf. Sowohl auf den Kanarischen Inseln, als auch in Katalonien ist der Stierkampf mittlerweile verboten.
In Barcelona erscheinen La Vanguardia November Cuatro und seit dem Das Fernsehprogrammangebot wird durch regionale Fernsehsender abgerundet.
Vor allem in den Regionen Katalonien und Galicien wird auch der Rollhockeysport zahlreich betrieben. Auch Motorsport ist in Spanien sehr beliebt.
Der bedeutendste Individualsport ist Tennis. Neben dem Profisport hat der Amateursport in Spanien einen sehr hohen Stellenwert.
Aber auch Radfahren und Walking werden in Spanien immer beliebter. Einige hiervon sind staatlich, einige werden von der Autonomen Gemeinschaft bestimmt, je ein Feiertag von der Provinz in der Regel der Schutzpatron der Provinz und ein Feiertag von der Gemeinde beziehungsweise vom Ort in der Regel der Schutzpatron der Gemeinde.
Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Politische Parteien in Spanien. Centro Nacional de Inteligencia. Liste der Autobahnen in Spanien.
Liste der kerntechnischen Anlagen in Spanien. Februar , abgerufen am United Nations, abgerufen am Eurostat , abgerufen am Central Intelligence Agency, abgerufen am April ; abgerufen am Juni , abgerufen am 3.
Mai spanisch, Lebenserwartung in Spanien. September , archiviert vom Original am Januar ; abgerufen am Archiviert vom Original am Mai , abgerufen am 8.
Oktober , abgerufen am 5. April , abgerufen am 5. Schwere Mission im katholischen Spanien Memento vom Mai im Internet Archive.
Februar PDF, spanisch. Februar , archiviert vom Original am Juli ; abgerufen am Mai , abgerufen am Dezember , abgerufen am Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners.
They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn , fruit trees , and vegetables.
Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets , potatoes, legumes , olive trees , mangos, strawberries , tomatoes, and fodder grasses.
Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products.
Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.
In , Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.
Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage.
Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear 8 operative reactors , gas , coal , and oil. Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China.
On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train and the French TGV.
There are 47 public airports in Spain. Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million. In the 19th and 20th centuries science in Spain was held back by severe political instability and consequent economic underdevelopment.
Despite the conditions, some important scientists and engineers emerged. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide and 32th overall in the SCImago Institutions Rankings.
Since the Mobile World Congress has taken place in Barcelona.. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid , the most populated areas lie around the coast.
In , Spain granted citizenship to 84, persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute.
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Around , Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Peru and Mexico.
During the same period perhaps , went to Latin America. The Spanish Constitution of , in its second article, recognises several contemporary entities — nationalities — [m] and regions, within the context of the Spanish nation.
Spain is de facto a plurinational state. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture.
Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques , Catalans , Galicians , Andalusians and Valencians ,  although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.
It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan countries have recently been settling in Spain.
There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans , French and others.
The arrival of the gitanos , a Romani people , began in the 16th century; estimates of the Spanish Roma population range from , to over one million.
Their origin is unclear. Historically, Sephardi Jews and Moriscos are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture.
According to the Spanish government there were 5. According to residence permit data for , more than , were Romanian, about , were Moroccan , approximately , were British, and , were Ecuadorian.
This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension. Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus , but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to In , the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.
In alone, more than half a million people left Spain. Spain is legally multilingual,  and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.
The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes , their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection.
In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla , Riff Berber is spoken by a significant part of the population. Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic is spoken by a significant percentage of the population.
In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.
State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The institute was inspired by the philosophy of Krausism. The health care system of Spain Spanish National Health System is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization.
Roman Catholicism , which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class.
Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam,  Judaism,  and evangelical Christianity  is also recognised in law.
Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.
However, significant anomalies remain, including the presence of a blasphemy law in statute, which theoretically criminalises criticism of religion.
A blasphemy prosecution in Spain has happened as recently as There have been four Spanish Popes. Later, they became Doctors of the Church.
The Society of Jesus was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola , whose Spiritual Exercises and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone.
Protestant churches have about 1,, members. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has approximately 46, adherents in congregations in all regions of the country and has a temple in the Moratalaz District of Madrid.
The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from Morocco and other African countries.
The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus , Buddhists , Sikhs and Muslims. After the Reconquista in , Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries.
Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco and Western Sahara full citizenship.
Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria. Judaism was practically non-existent in Spain from the expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country.
Currently there are around 62, Jews in Spain, or 0. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews.
Approximately 80, Jews are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion. Other sources suggest , converts mostly after the pogroms of and upwards of , expelled.
The descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in are given the Spanish nationality if they request so. Spain is a Western country.
Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries of Europe.
The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.
The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the Kharjas Jarchas.
During the Reconquista , the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid was written about a real man—his battles, conquests, and daily life.
It is also remarkable the Valencian chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch written in Valencian. The Baroque is the most important period for Spanish culture.
We are in the times of the Spanish Empire. Other writers from the period are: In the spirit of general "Realism", Realist authors opted for depictions of everyday and banal activities and experiences, instead of romanticised or stylised presentations.
The "Disaster" of led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo.
The Generation of or Novecentismo. Salvador de Madariaga , another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International.
All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas and the Generation of for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.
Spain is one of the countries with the most number of laureates with the Nobel Prize in Literature , and with Latin American laureates they made the Spanish language literature one of the most laureates of all.
The Spanish writers are: Saramago was also well known by his Iberist ideas. Seneca was a philosopher during the time of the Roman Empire. That is the case of Ibn Arabi , Averroes or Maimonides.
Humanist Luis Vives during the Renaissance. Enlightenment in Spain arrived later and less strong as in other European countries, but during the XIX century liberal ideas arrived into Spanish society.
At the end of the century, socialist and libertarian ideas also flourished particularly strong at the intellectual level, with thinkers as Francisco Pi i Margall , Ricardo Mella or Francisco Ferrer Guardia.
Most contemporary philosophers include Fernando Savater and Adela Cortina , creator of the term aporophobia. Artists from Spain have been highly influential in the development of various European and American artistic movements.
Due to historical, geographical and generational diversity, Spanish art has known a great number of influences. The Mediterranean heritage with Greco-Roman and some Moorish and influences in Spain, especially in Andalusia is still evident today.
There are many other autochthonous styles such as the Pre-Romanesque art and architecture , Herrerian architecture or the Isabelline Gothic.
Francisco Goya painted during a historical period that includes the Spanish Independence War , the fights between liberals and absolutists, and the raise of contemporary state-nations.
The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time.
There were two Schools of special flair and talent: Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences.
Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque and Gothic streams.
There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory.
The arrival of Modernism in the academic arena produced much of the architecture of the 20th century.
Spain is currently experiencing a revolution in contemporary architecture and Spanish architects like Rafael Moneo , Santiago Calatrava , Ricardo Bofill as well as many others have gained worldwide renown.
Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco , a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region.
Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular. Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival is one of the main ones on its genre.
The most popular traditional musical instrument , the guitar, originated in Spain. Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week is one of the most important fashion weeks in Europe.
Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate.
In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, like Spanish ham , or immersed in olive oil , like Manchego cheese.
Atlantic Spain — the whole Northern coast, including Asturian , Basque , Cantabrian and Galician cuisine — vegetable and fish-based stews like caldo gallego and marmitako.
While varieties of football had been played in Spain as far back as Roman times, sport in Spain has been dominated by football since the early 20th century.
Basketball , tennis , cycling, handball , futsal , motorcycling and, lately, Formula One are also important due to the presence of Spanish champions in all these disciplines.
Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the Summer Olympics that were hosted in Barcelona , which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country.
The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports , golf and skiing.
The most outstanding athletes figure: Rafael Nadal is the leading Spanish tennis player and has won seventeen Grand Slam titles second most of any man  and holds the record with the most number of ATP World Tour Masters singles titles.
In their respective regions, the games of Basque pelota and Valencian pilota are populars. Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious Roman Catholic , national and regional observances.
Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally.
There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Some of them are known worldwide, and every year millions of people from all over the world go to Spain to experience one of these festivals.
While its most famous event is the encierro , or the running of the bulls , which happens at 8: Its events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway , which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people.
As a result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,, people attending every year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the country. For other uses, see Spain disambiguation. Country in Southwest Europe. Show map of Europe.
Hispania and Visigothic Kingdom. Spanish transition to democracy and Spanish society after the democratic transition. List of islands of Spain.
Spanish Constitution of List of Spanish monarchs and Monarchs of Spain family tree. Human rights in Spain.
LGBT rights in Spain. Political divisions of Spain. Autonomous communities of Spain. Nationalities and regions of Spain. Provinces of Spain and Municipalities of Spain.
Foreign relations of Spain. Renewable energy in Spain. Automotive industry in Spain. Science and technology in Spain. List of Spanish autonomous communities by population.
List of metropolitan areas in Spain. Spanish people and National and regional identity in Spain. Health care in Spain and Abortion in Spain.
Religions in Spain Roman Catholicism. World Heritage Sites in Spain. Castles in Spain and Cathedrals in Spain. Basque literature , Catalan literature , Galician literature , and Latin American literature.
Mediterranean portal Spain portal. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the official name by many international organisations.
Espainiako Erresuma , IPA: Aragonese , Asturian , and Occitan locally known as Aranese have some degree of official recognition.
In the same month the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 42,, The number of foreigners i. Archived PDF from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 25 March Retrieved 26 April Retrieved 14 April First half of " PDF in Spanish.
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